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Season 9 - Episode 10

Pronoun Masculine Chart

15 min - Tutorial
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Anuradha looks at the devanagari script of Masculine third person pronouns in singular, dual, and plural forms.
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Apr 22, 2016
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Namaste dear friends, so I'm very happy to be back with you again and we've been exploring these pronouns in the singular third person and looking at it in the masculine, the feminine and the neuter and also exploring how these pronouns change with distance, with space. So when something was far, how you would say it and then when it is near, how you would say it and then of course the wonder question, how or who, what, they all sound different when it is said in the masculine, feminine and neuter. So what I'll try and do for you now is to present it in its script form. So let's look at what they are and also like I have mentioned earlier, every pronoun or every noun has the gender but it also corresponds to a number, how many of them, so you can have one, you can have two and you can have many, three and more, alright. So what I've done on this chart is to represent these third person pronouns in the singular which in Sanskrit is eka vachanam, that's what we have here, eka vachanam, eka in Sanskrit is one and vachanam is speech or saying of one thing, dvi vachanam, that's two, two things so dual and then bahu, bahu means many, bahu vachanam, that's many things that we're talking about and that would correspond to the plural.

The pronouns that we have been looking at thus far and that you're getting more and more familiar with are the kaha question who or what, saha when it is far and eshaha near in the masculine. So today's focus is really going to be on the masculine of this and what we have beside it is also the noun form, so the pronoun revising it for you, the pronoun is when you are replacing a noun with a certain word, we have the word naraha to represent the man. Now I had once before also mentioned to you that words in Sanskrit are derived from root sounds or root forms, so the root form of kaha, the question who or what is kim, I hope you can see it, it's a little squiggly but the sound of it is kim, that's the root of that. The root for the pronoun third person, masculine here that is saha, the root of saha is tad, and the root for the pronoun eshaha, this is etad and you will see how this root when it is in the masculine, the kim in the masculine will become kaha, so that's masculine third person singular. It is a little of brain work but what Sanskrit will do for you is basically help you systematize the world around you, we use so many words but we never really think of how those words are helping us to categorize the world around us.

So in Sanskrit there is a very clear framework, when you have a word which is a noun, which is different from the verb, so we have the noun, you have to first think of the gender of the word, that's important and then you have to think of the numbers, so here we are talking of the pronoun kim in the root, when it is in the masculine it is kaha, the question is kaha, naraha, I have marked the two dots in Sanskrit which represent the visarga, it's the aspirate sound, so kaha or kaha to emphasize it, naraha, you see that the masculine punch kaha, naraha, the answer if he is far saha, naraha, if he is near e shaha, naraha. Now let's see, if we had to replace naraha with the word chaatraha or chaatra, that's the root form of the word, what would you get, kaha, chaatraha, you got it, saha, chaatraha, I put it in the transliteration as well, so which student, kaha, chaatraha, saha, chaatraha, that student, e shaha, chaatraha, is that clear, we will just do it another time and this time using an object, it doesn't really matter in Sanskrit whether it's an object or a person, what counts is the gender of the word, so kata is a masculine word and that is the root form, so now if we have to add the question which mat it would be kaha and kataha, very good, that's an e kataha, that's very nice and then if you had to say that mat, saha, kataha, if you have to say this mat, e shaha, kataha, now moving on to the dual form, in the dual the kaha becomes kau, too, in English you have t w o, the w o is almost like the o, you can remember that as a tip, it works for the masculine though not everywhere necessarily, so it's a tip but not a generalization, so in the masculine it's kau narao, which two men or who two men, the answer if two men are standing over there would be tau narao, got that, those two men tau narao, now if they were close by can you make a guess what it would be, you have to add the sound e to that, so e tau narao, e tau narao, that's easy, just practice, it's not that difficult, alright, now we take the practice form of that, so we'll do two other examples, we take the word chaatra, if you had to say which two students you would say kau and there chaatrao and putting it in transliteration, the answer would be those two students, tau chaatrao, those two students, these two students e tau chaatrao, fantastic, we'll do one more exercise, the word for mat katta, when it is in the dual and a question, which two mats, kau kattao, you're getting a hang of it, very good, kau kattao, those two mats tau kattao, tau kattao, these two mats e tau kattao, e tau kattao, very good, so now I started understanding what the singular forms are like, we've just looked at the dual forms, the natural next step is the plural and in the plural the English word is helpful again, because when you say they are, in Sanskrit it is te, the same, so they, only the d becomes the t here, so they in English becomes te, so those men te nara, the word nara in the plural becomes nara, did you see that, so the ending also changes, the word men is a bit tough in English because it completely transforms from man to men, but if you had the word boy, those boys, the s at the end indicates that it's many of them, so similarly in Sanskrit when you have the aha ending, it would tell you that it's plural, alright and that also it is indicative of who is doing the action, so those men are doing the action in this case, so te nara ha, the question would be ke nara ha, which men and the answer, te nara ha, if they were these men doing the work it would be eite nara ha, eite nara ha, did you get that, eite nara ha, let's do a practice with the word chaatra, so first let's make the word chaatra into the plural, so when you have many students, what would you have in Sanskrit, so chaatra would become chaatra ha, very good, chaatra ha, there you are, chaatra ha, so that's our chaatra ha, many students, the question which students ke chaatra ha, these students eite chaatra ha, lovely once more, eite chaatra ha, we'll do another practice with an object this time, we take the word kata ha, what's your natural guess would be the plural, kata ha, excellent, so kata ha, kata ha, which mats ke kata ha, ke kata ha, those mats te kata ha, te kata ha, these mats eite kata ha, eite kata ha, fantastic, you have to practice, like I told you earlier, Sanskrit is a language of sounds, the more you sound it, the patterns become evident, so in this you will notice that there is a certain rhyming that happens for the singular, the dual and the plural, the secret key in that is you just need to remember one word in that series, if you remember one word any other word that belongs to that category will form itself exactly in the same way, so in this series I suggest you remember the word saha, alright, so for the singular masculine pronoun, for the third person remember saha, saha in the dual becomes tau, saha tau and in the plural it's te, saha tau te, you got that, saha tau te, lovely, I'll just mark that for you, so you remember which one needs to be memorized, saha tau te, these are the pronouns, now if you had to remember a form for a noun that is doing an action, so man, man who is doing the action when it's just one man it would be nara ha, two narao, matching again and then you have nara ha, this one is a little different so you need to memorize it, just remember though in the masculine all words ending with aha will become aha, that's the clue, alright, practice saha tau te, the whole week around wherever you go you just say saha tau te, saha tau te, that's it, the system will start digesting it and then it will come easier, when you read it anywhere you will recognize it, yeah, so see you again with the feminine pronouns.


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