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Season 9 - Episode 13

Pronoun Neuter Chart

15 min - Tutorial


Anuradha looks at the devanagari script of Neuter third person pronouns in singular, dual, and plural forms.
What You'll Need: No props needed

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May 06, 2016
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Welcome friends, always happy to have you back on the show and this time we'll be looking at the pronouns in the neuter, in the singular, dual, plural, third person. It's always a matrix that we come back to. So we've been looking at the masculine pronouns along with a noun. We've then looked at the feminine pronouns with a noun ending with a and an e. The next part of this episode, we'll look at the neuter gender in the singular, the dual and the plural and the word that we will explore together that you are already familiar with is the word palam for fruit.

So we have the same pronouns who, which in the neuter is kim, which is also the root of this particular word. So the root of the pronoun kim is kim, fine and the root for the tat is tad. So somehow in the neuter, it seems to go back closest to its original root form and etat is etad. So we'll combine it with the noun. You have kim palam, which fruit and you say tat palam, that fruit.

This fruit etat palam, got that? Say it once with me as I go down the list. So which fruit kim palam, that fruit, tat like the English that, tat palam, this fruit etat palam. The tip again with the English could be you can say etat. We can maybe give English a little bit of the Sanskrit flavor and simplify your life.

So which kim, tat and etat in the singular. Now we'll replace the word palam with the word mitra, which is the root form. What according to you would it become in the singular subject case? So it would become mitram, very good. So which friend, kim mitram, tat friend, tat mitram, this friend etat mitram.

Close your eyes, think of a really good friend. And somebody is asking you, which friend are you talking about, kim mitram. You're telling that person tat, that friend, tat mitram. And then imagine you both of you have walked up to your friend and you're saying this friend etat mitram, very good. So we have kim, tat, etat with the word palam or mitram.

We'll take another example from the yoga world asanam. So asana is the root form and when you put it in the singular case it will become which asana, kim asanam, that asanam, tat asanam, this asanam, etat asanam, very good. Got that? Just say it once more. So imagine yourself in or imagine somebody in a posture, whatever is your favorite posture it's good to think of your favorite things because then it somehow brings your emotion into the learning of that language.

It's something that you would recollect more easily. So when you're talking of an asana that you like and somebody is doing that posture and you're talking about it with a friend who says, which asana are you talking about, kim asanam. You point out there and say, tat asanam and the person performs the asana in front of you and says, is this the one? You say yeah, etat asanam, got that? So now let's move on to the dual case or the dviva chanam, dual case.

In that we have the word palam becomes pali. You would remember now that when we talked of the word mahila, feminine word ending with aa, it also became in the dual case, mahilai. And all the pronouns in the dual case of the feminine took on the sound a, that really simplifies the memorization of this language for you. So remember feminine dual cases or for k, who, that and this is the same as the neuter dual cases. So that's three words less for you to memorize.

All right. You just need to remember that association, that link. So we have which fruits, which two fruits, ke bhale, rhyming. Those two fruits, te bhale, these two fruits, e te bhale, close your eyes. You've got it.

Think of your favorite fruit, which two fruits, ke bhale and you're imagining those two favorite fruits of yours on a table far away, te bhale, those two fruits. And now those two fruits are in your hand and you say these two fruits, e te bhale. Got that? Now look at the chart once and say it with me, ke bhale, te those two fruits, te bhale, these two fruits, e te bhale. Fantastic.

We'll do it with the word mitram, friend. So in the dual case, what would it become? Got it? Mitre. That's it.

Yeah. So which two friends, ke mitre, those two friends, te mitre, these two friends, e te mitre, always works to think of your favorite ones. Now moving on to the asana, what would happen to the root asana in the neuter dual case? It would become asanae, lovely. And now you can do it all by yourself.

Want to give it a try? Which two asanas, ke asanae, lovely, ke asanae, those two asanas, fantastic, te asanae, these two asanas, very good. I'm so glad it's, yeah, it's coming. Now let's move on to the plural or the bahuvachanam, bahu meaning many. So bahuvachanam is when we are talking of many.

In that the word phalam becomes phalani, almost like spreads out, phalani. If you remember when we talked about the masculine word with nara, it became naraa. You see the vowels at the end of it really seem to give it this expanded sense. So nara became naraa. In the feminine, the word ending with a, mahila, again became mahilaha.

So the masculine and the feminine get the same forms, mahilaha, naraa. Now the feminine ending with an e does a whole different thing because she's a woman and many of them do different things. So when you have many naris, they don't get into the aha, that would be too much to handle. So okay, so they just make it very short and effective. So it's nara ya, your breath is gone, nara ya, kata.

Now in the case of the neuter, in the plural, it becomes phalani, call that phalani. So phalam becomes phalani. We take the word for flower, one flower pushpam. Many flowers pushpani, one friend mitram, many friends mitrani. You'll say it right, mitrani, one asanam, many asanani, very good, asanani.

You just need to keep your concentration a little bit Sanskrit, there is no shortcut about this language. So if you've said asanam, you have to keep the whole word, replace the n with the ani. So asanani ya, asanam, asanani, pushpam, pushpani, very good. Now let's move on to the pronouns. Good news for you again, it rhymes.

So even if you can remember for one word, it will help to memorize it for all the other words in the neuter that end with an am. So we have come or kim becomes kani, which fruits, kani, phalani, those fruits, tani, phalani, those fruits, tani, phalani. These fruits, etani, phalani, which fruits, etani, these fruits, etani, phalani, great. We'll repeat that with a friend, which friends, kani, mitrani, lovely, those friends, tani, mitrani. You would notice that there is a dot below it.

Now that's a little sound or phonetic change that happens when there is a sound rr that follows the n. That's a little detail, but it's a good thing to just notice that little difference there. Because here we have a dental nr and here you have a cerebral nr. In terms of precision, it helps to note that. So we have mitrani.

So which friends, tani, mitrani, those friends, tani, mitrani, these friends, etani, mitrani. So we'll do this little exercise which the word asanani, alright. I'll ask you the question in English and you give me the Sanskrit form of it. So which asanas, kani, asanani, very good, kani, asanani, those asanas, very good, tani, asanani, these asanas, very good, etani, asanani, super, really happy with the way you're learning them up, great. Now to help you remember these later on, we'll just repeat the nouns independently once.

So take the word palam, in the singular it's palam, in the dual pale, in the plural palani. Close your eyes, palam, pale, palani. Open your eyes, see the word and use your fingers, palam, pale, palani. When you close your eyes, if you can think of that one fruit as you say it, two fruits as you say it, many fruits, really helps. You can even then play with some of the vocabulary that we've given you with the neuter and see if you get it right.

So take the word pushpam and see whether you can form it correctly as pushpam, pushpe, pushpani or mitram, mitram, mitre, mitrani, so practice, all right. But any one word of that group is good, know that and you'll have a lot of the language already memorized. Now going to the pronouns, to do a recap of it, for who in the neuter, in the singular, kim, dual, ke, plural, kani, do that, close your eyes, kim, ke, kani. Open your eyes, look at it, kim, ke, kani, lovely. That neuter, tat, that's the simplest, that, tat, tat, te, tani.

Use your hand as you point to one neuter object, so imagine your friend there, one friend, so tat, two friends, te, many friends, tani. Close your eyes, tat, te, tani. Open your eyes and do it again, tat, te, tani, nearby, so a tat, remember, so a tat, this friend, a te, these two friends, a tani, these friends, yeah, give them a hug. So imagine you're hugging one friend and this friend who's close by, so this friend, so a tat, two of them, a te and many of them, a tani. Open your eyes, think of it more concretely in your awakened state, so a tat, a te and a tani.

So I suggest when you do the a te, get two fingers in, you know, because that really helps to keep the memory. So a tat is just with one, a te is with two and a tani is with many, lovely. So practice, that's the key, but you're getting there, you're really getting there. Every day, one, for the next one week, take a word and that is your mantra for the day. In the coming shows, we look at the you formal, the you informal and the first person, that's I in the singular, dual and plural.

You have to get that rhythm now, it's all about the rhythm of classifications, enjoy.


Kate M
Your drills are really helpful!  : )
Anuradha Choudry
Kate Happy and grateful! :)

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