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Season 9 - Episode 17

Pronoun Lesson Review Chart

15 min - Practice
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Anuradha reviews the Sanskrit pronoun chart that we've been exploring in details in the prior episodes. We put it all together and review the chart of singular, dual, plural pronouns in the first, second, and third person.
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May 20, 2016
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So Agatam again dear friends, I hope you've been really enjoying this experience of getting the different dimensions of the Sanskrit language where the pronouns are concerned. So we've looked at all of it now really that I can offer or the Sanskrit language can offer. In terms of the simple pronouns of the third person, the second person, formal and informal and the first person. So that's what we've covered. There are many other pronouns but these are the basics.

You get this and you have a chunk of the pronouns mastered. We call the pronouns Sarvanamani. It's the all nouns because a pronoun is the word that is used to replace a noun. Alright so we have the Sarvanamani as we saw it in the singular dual plural masculine feminine and neuter in the third person in English. Mind you in Sanskrit, the word for it is pratamapurushaha pratamapurushaha.

In Sanskrit actually means first person. So that's something you need to get your head around if you belong to the English speaking part of the world or the Euro-American language groups. So we have the pratamapurushaha in Sanskrit which is the first person but for you it is the third person and the root of it is tad, got it. So we have that singular dual plural then we see the u-informal. The u-formal normally doesn't form part of this basic matrix and therefore we have the root of that u-informal yushmad that we've touched upon and the Sanskrit word for that kind of pronoun is madhyama purushaha.

Madhyama means the middle so the middle person and that is equivalent to the second person in the English language. The gender doesn't matter so it's a singular dual and plural and then we come to the first person which is the asmad in the root form. The technical name for the first person is uttamapurushaha in Sanskrit that translates itself as the best person. So I don't think it's surprising that I am the best person for every individual. But in the English grammar it would be the first person.

So we have it also in the singular dual and plural. You're very familiar with it now but it's good to see the entire chart presented. Gives a little clarity. I will also point out what you need to remember and how you need to remember because that will facilitate this complex looking thing here. Alright I have tried to maintain a color code that you would start recognizing.

So when we talk of the singular masculine third person it is saha, two of them tau, plural te. So just remember saha tau te. Just get the pronouns in. Leave the noun nara ha out of the picture for now saha tau te. Do that saha tau te.

Once more very good. And the feminine sah te taha. Do that sah te taha faster sah te taha sah te taha lovely sah te taha sah te taha. Remember let's move on to the neuter form which is tat tat that's easy that tat tat. The dual is similar to the feminine so te tat te and then tani, do that tani tat te tani tat te tani how's that tat te tani got it last time tani fantastic.

Okay so that is those are the pronouns all right so I would suggest that you don't really try to get all of them on the same day. Take one take the masculine stick to the masculine saha tau te and maybe at the next day or two days later on take the feminine two days after that take the neuter that's a that would be helpful. Just combining it once with the noun so saha na raha get the rhythm saha na raha two of them tau na rau tau na rau te na raha dee te na raha again te na raha we'll do it once together saha na raha tau na rau te na raha got it fantastic move into the feminine that lady sah na ri sah na ri those two ladies te na ryao te na ryao and the plural ta ha na rya ha ta ha na rya ha fantastic. Moving into the neuter form tat palam it's taka to a bit tat palam again tat palam tepale tepale and tani palani great tani palani lovely. Now just to point out to you a certain visual pattern that you can recognize if you see here we have three days so when you're trying to just visualize the third person singular dual and plural masculine feminine and neuter what you need to remember is you have the aha aat so aha ta aat aha aat so the last third then you have the two in this dual for the masculine so ao so tau and then te te and how you can try to remember that is go to the masculine stick to the masculine line first so tau te dei remember the English dei so dei so those two tau and dei drop them into the next two lines so that is what it would be like five and then many ta ha so ta ha and the last one that is tani so that's a sort of a visual way that you can try to remember these different forms so we have covered the third person forms in singular dual plural masculine feminine and neuter we will next move on to the you or the second person informal and that was very simple it was thuam you vam you too you yum thuam you vam you yum thuam you vam you yum super and next we combine it with the nouns so the nouns don't change as you can see nara ha remains nara ha remains nara ha nara o remains nara o remains nara o because that's how the noun is working itself out the pronouns however become thuam nara ha for a man you man thuam nari you lady you too man you vam nara o you too ladies you vam nari o you many men you yum nara ha okay i see i've made a small mistake there this line doesn't exist all right it's good to repeat it with you because then i get a chance to be more present so you yum nara ha great and then for the plural it becomes you yum nara ya you ladies you yum nara ya so what you need to take out of this chart for the pronouns in the second person singular dual and plural is just thuam you vam you yum say that very good we move on to the final one which is i singular dual and plural remember the best person is aham great and you feel your presence grounded aham the two of us a-vam and we all vayam so vayam aham a-vam and vayam lovely embrace yourself a-ham another person a-vam and many of us vayam call that combining it with the noun a-ham nara ha two men a-vam nara o many men vayam nara ha two lady one lady i a-ham nari two of us ladies a-vam nari o vayam many of us ladies nara ya ha remember that in the feminine in all the cases here of the words masculine feminine we are taking only a particular word having a specific kind of ending you do have many other kinds of endings in the sanskrit language which might be masculine feminine or neuter but that is something that we can discover as we proceed as we dive deeper into this language for now what you would really need to remember or practice remembering is you do the sequence of saha tau te as one sequence you can then do it with the feminine it is sa te ta ha and then with the neuter tat te tani ya and then when we go on to the you it's tuam you vam and you yam it's good to learn these two together actually because the forms are quite similar somewhere so it's a-ham a-vam and vayam i've left the transliterations out as you've noticed but that's because i'm starting to assume that you're getting more and more familiar with the devanagari script yeah so start practicing the original devanagari script as well because that will somehow it's easier when you have just one letter corresponding to one sound it becomes more easy to remember the language and to be more precise with the sounding of that word all right so do practice it it's quite a lot in there but if you just take it step by step if you've been following me from the beginning with the pronouns just if you've done it week by week you could teach me what has to come next look forward to that day thank you


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